Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Instructional Systems - Discussion #3

After reviewing the mini-lecture by Dr. Donna Huynh (a previous member of our faculty) regarding instructional systems and reading the short review regarding the ADDIE model and other materials posted in Bb, please answer the following questions.

To REPLY to the question or to another participant's post, just hit the REPLY Button under the question or post.


  1. Create an ANALOGY to describe an instructional system. Good teachers use analogies to describe unfamiliar concepts to students by making a comparison to something that's familiar in terms of structure, process, or functions. For example, auto repair is analogous to providing health care services. The auto repair man (or woman) must gather information from the client, examine the car, analyze the information, render a diagnosis of the problem, offer solution(s) to the client, perform the authorized repair (or refer to someone who can), and follow-up with the client later to make certain the repair cured the problem. Using an analogy, how would explain instructional systems to someone who's unfamiliar with the concept?

  2. Step 1 in Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction is gaining attention. Describe a course you've taken or a program you've attended where this was done well. Tell us what the instructor(s) did to gain your attention. Why do you think this initial step is important and how does it contribute to learning?

  3. Tell us about an instructional framework that you've discover (by doing some online research) that's different than the ADDIE model. In what ways is the model similar to ADDIE and in what ways does it enhance (or further than) the ADDIE model?

  4. The ADDIE model emphasizes the need to do an ANALYSIS before designing your instructional event or developing your instructional materials. What are some key pieces of information that should be collected and from whom (e.g. what are some relevant sources that should be considered during your analysis phase)?

  5. Thinking back on an instructional event where you were responsible for leading the learner(s) (be it as a teaching assistant, a tutor, a Sunday school instructor, swim coach, etc), tell us about a time when things didn't go as well as you had envisioned. If you had know about it at the time, would the ADDIE model have helped in some way? Be specific. Tell us how your knowledge of instructional systems might have changed the outcome.

  6. One of the instructional frameworks I found was the ASSURE model. ASSURE stands for Analyze learners, State objectives, Select methods, media, and materials, Utilize media and materials, Require learner participation, and Evaluate and Revise. This model serves as a guide to assist teachers with their lesson plan while incorporating the use of media. The downside of the ASSURE model is that you don't have the analysis stage like the ADDIE model does. Both these models are similar in that they geared towards the student and teacher development. With the ASSURE model, it seems like it's geared towards the future learners since we are putting more emphasis on digital media with teaching.

  7. I took a teaching rotation my fourth year of pharmacy school. For one of my assignments, I had to display and explain to third year pharmacy students how to properly prepare chemotherapy in a sterile hood. I was given about 30 minutes to show how to use the special plastic bits and connectors (Phaseal transfer devices for those familiar with it) to transfer chemotherapy from the vial into a IV bag. Unfortunately, I assumed my four years of sterile compounding experience would be enough to fill in the half hours worth of material. In reality, I performed the demonstration in about 5 minutes. As I did not have enough materials ahead of time for students to each practice with themselves, few students were able to successfully use the transfer devices afterwards.

    I think the ADDIE model would have been extraordinarily beneficial in this circumstances. Up front, outside of knowing the students were third years, I did not survey my audience appropriately. I should have asked the students up front how much experience they collectively had with sterile compounding to better tailor my word choices and speed of demonstration. I also failed to realize that some students need to actually listen, visualize, and perform a physical action prior to truly learning a skill. To summarize, I skipped over the ADD entirely to jump straight into the I phase of the model, with somewhat disastrous results.

  8. I think it is important to assess your intended audience prior to developing instructional materials. By assessing individuals on a case-by-case basis or viewing completed coursework/materials prior to learning, one can tailor their instructional materials for a better educational experience. For example, if I need to teach an individual how to bake delicious banana bread (with or without nuts, its your choice!) I should assess my sous-chef's baking ability. If my sous-chef is brand-spanking-new our of culinary school, I would very likely be able to speak with her or him briefly about the recipie prior to letting the baking begin. On the other hand, if my sous-chef is an 18 year old college undergrad who's past culinary experience amounts to microwaving water for ramen noodles, I will need to cover the basics of baking prior to moving on to the actual banana bread creation.

  9. Like Sam said, assessing the audience is a crucial step in designing an instructional activity. In the classroom setting, I would want to get an idea of where the class is at baseline. I would look at the curriculum that they have completed thus far and perhaps consider a pretest if appropriate. In addition to looking back at the curriculum completed, I would look ahead to future courses to see where my class fit within the entire curriculum to ensure that I am meeting the necessary objectives and setting the students up for success. Additionally, I would analyze the resources available to me (technology? text books? teaching assistants?). I think other faculty members will be a key resource in gathering information. The students themselves are important resources as well because their needs will impact what and how I teach.

  10. The Backward Design Model is unique from ADDIE in that it starts with identifying the end goals, or the skills and understandings that students should learn by the end of the module. The educator then works backwards to develop assessments and then activities that will support the end goals. This method relies on continuous feedback and assessment of the learner's understanding of the big picture. Once the big ideas have been established, smaller details can be learned.
    I think this approach is useful because it is very heavily weighted on the desired outcomes and making sure all assigned activities and assessments lead to those outcomes. A shortfall is that it omits the analysis step which is typically the first step in most instructional frameworks. The desired outcomes may not be attainable if the learners are not far enough along in their development or the necessary inputs are not available.

  11. When I think of instructional systems, in particular, the
    ADDIE system I think of an advertising firm, for this example, let’s think
    about trying to advertise a Ferrari (a high end, expensive sports car). They have
    a message to deliver and they have to be precise about what they are saying in
    a limited manner. Analyzing an audience requires a firm to understand who
    exactly would want to buy a Ferrai, which is likely to be higher income
    individuals who understand the high performance nature of such a vehicle. The firm
    will also want to specify what they want their ads to say, such as ‘buy a
    Ferrari because it’s the fastest’ or ‘because you’ll look awesome’. When designing
    an advertising strategy it’s key to know how the message will be delivered (TV,
    radio, maybe viral advertising, etc.). If a TV ad is selected then the firm
    will need to find film production crews, director and communicate with
    broadcast stations to get the ad on TV. In addition they would have to do
    numerous trial runs of the ad and test it in front of unbiased viewers in the
    target group. At the implementation phase the ad is finally ready to be shown
    to a large audience and the subsequent evaluation (at all phases) will
    determine what worked in achieving the desired goals and how each step affected
    the others. For example, would using a TV ad be effective in reaching the
    audience we identified in the analysis step? Evaluation is essential for all
    steps not just following implementation.

  12. One of the situations where the ADDIE models would have definitely helped was this year for one of my teaching certificate sessions. I'm in charge of leading the CAP topic discussions for the UMMS pharmacy students that have rotations during that block. Since I sat in on one of the session before, I thought I would be able to lead the session as comfortably as the facilitator prior. I was dead wrong. I think when I came up with my assignment, I only used the DIE part of ADDIE and not to sound cheesey, I felt like I wanted to die after the session just because it did not go as I had expected.

    The ADDIE model definitely would have helped me with assessing my learners baseline so I know what I can ask them, what they might need work on and lastly what topics I shouldn't cover for relevance sake. Had I developed more material, the session would have gone much smoother.

  13. A learning needs assessment can be done using a survey or test. A well designed survey can shed light on the learning styles of the audience, and the level of background knowledge they have pertaining to the course or class. This will help in designing an appropriate program for the audience. Like Allison said, looking at the curriculum, text books and inquiring from other educators who have taught this course or similar course are good sources to consult.

  14. I agree with all who have posted that the analysis is a crucial step of instructional design that I think is often overlooked. As Jackie mentioned in his response to another post, leaving out the analysis portion of the lecture can have unforeseen consequences. I have attended lectures where a majority of the information is repetitive of prior coursework and where I felt bored and underwhelmed. I think an assessment of both your learners’ prior knowledge and curricular content as well as the way that your learners prefer to learn would be extremely helpful in designing your course content. One way you could acquire this information is to ask the students, but I think, as Allison said, it would also be helpful to discuss with other course instructors who have taught to this group of learners before. Ask the instructors what worked for them and what didn’t and then use this information to tailor your lecture to be more successful. If you are teaching only one lecture, it may not be practical to survey the students, but a pre-lecture meeting with a faculty member could be very useful.

  15. The Systems Approach Model (also known as the Dick and Carey model) is an instructional design model which views instructional design as a system with interrelationships between context, content, learning, and instruction. The interworking between these steps leads to the outcome of learning. This model is different than the ADDIE model in that it includes a more detailed process with many more steps as well as several of these steps running in parallel rather than linearly as in the ADDIE model. This model also starts out by having the instructor identify instructional goals before performing analysis. This model is similar to ADDIE in that both require analysis of the learners’ needs, design and development of materials, and continuous evaluation of the instructional methods. I think a positive of the Systems Approach Model is that it starts out with identifying the instructional goals helping to orient the instructor and ensure that the later steps are in line with the overall goals of the instructor.

  16. I would like to comment on my experiences as a servant/teacher in the College Ministry at my church this year. Before starting the new curriculum in the class in September, one of the class coordinators gave a survey to the students to assess where the needs and interests lie. After the coordinators and teachers analyzed the results of the survey and laid out the topics that were going to be taught throughout the year, I was assigned to teach one session that was a part of a series. We successfully accomplished the 'A' of ADDIE and I practiced the 'DDI' for my individual lesson, but I didn't properly or effectively apply the 'E.' I felt for that particular lesson, I was talking more at the class than to the class. I didn't assess or evaluate what they took away from the lesson, or evaluate if the lesson plan was effective at all to their learning. Through being a UMD resident, I am beginning to understand the importance of self evaluation and proper evaluation of knowledge material of your audience members.

  17. The Nielsen ratings is another good analogy to describe an instructional system. TV executives use data gathered from Nielsen families to design, develop and implement new TV shows.

  18. I agree, and I like the baking analogy. While it is important to analyze what your students may either want out of the course or their prerequisite knowledge, I think that the instructor needs to self-assess how they can best approach the topic and enhance the learning experience. The instructor should think about their teaching style and approach to the material and how it would either match or mismatch that of the students' learning style. In preparation for a lecture, I also try to think about where the material could go- ie. what should I prepare for that may not be in the slides or on the class schedule that the students may want to learn about or have questions. This might provide an opportunity for the topic or lecture to grow/expand in the future.

  19. The best example I can think of for me (since I don't have much teaching experience) is back in high school I was a Sunday school assistant teacher. At the time I had no clue what the ADDIE model was. I had absolutely no idea of the children's baseline pre-existing knowledge because I had conducted no analysis. I did select certain topics to discuss and activities that supplemented discussions but everything came from the printed Sunday School teacher manual (so I'm not even sure if that qualifies as me doing the design and development per se?). I implemented and carried out discussions with the class. But there was no evaluation done (at the end or at any step of the way). So in summary I definitely did "I" and maybe did "DD" but otherwise was lacking in "A" and "E". Looking back I think most of the kids were bored and disengaged and because I did no evaluations I have no idea if anyone even actually learned any of the material.
    I think now with a knowledge of ADDIE I could have in theory conducted an analysis to see what level the children were coming in at. This likely would have to be done by asking the teachers of the Sunday School classes in the grade level below mine. And I definitely could conduct an evaluation. With small children I don't think a survey asking them to evaluate the teaching would be the best choice. I think a short post-test could be appropriate to assess learning.

  20. In my first year of pharmacy school we had a class called Physical Pharmacy. The professor wanted to do a baseline analysis of how capable and comfortable the class was with pre-requisite basic math calculations, algebra, moles/molar, unit conversions, etc. since each of us came from a different undergrad experience prior to pharmacy school. The professor gave us a timed 20 question quiz at the beginning of the semester and based on the results of that quiz he tailored the intro review lectures (more in-depth review for questions a lot of us missed and less in depth for ones most got right). A pro to this approach is it's relatively quick and easy to design a short quiz. The con is that your results are a conglomerate of the class. You are always going to have that one smarty-pants person who got the question right when no one else did and now they have to sit through extra lectures. Or even worse, there's always someone who got the question wrong when everyone else got it correct. That person now gets only an abbreviated lectures on that topic and will probably have to do some extra studying and leg work on their own.
    Key pieces of information you want to glean from your analysis: what is student's baseline understanding of material to be covered, do students have all necessary pre-requisites completed, how long ago was the pre-requisite knowledge obtained (ie: last semester vs 15 years ago).
    Key places to obtain this info: ask your students directly (via a test or a survey/questions), if available look at course descriptions/objectives of pre-requisite classes.

  21. I was a Teaching Assistant in college for General Biology. I was required to hold a review session once a week. I have never heard of the ADDIE model until today. I definitely did analysis and implementation, but I never designed, developed, or evaluated. I was able to properly analyze the needs of the class through a weekly survey in order to formulate my objectives and subjects that I would cover during the review sessions. I implemented these objectives fairly successfully during my review sessions. However, I would have definitely benefited from ADDIE because I did not design, develop, or evaluate my performance. I think it would have been particularly helpful to receive feedback from students as to how I performed, and how they performed on the tests after attending review sessions.

  22. I recently completed a teaching activity which required me to run a patient counseling activity on osteoporosis. When the first group of students arrived I gave them the instructions for the activity, which had been given to me from the course instructor, and let them begin counselling each other. I very quickly learned the students had not yet received lectures on osteoporosis or the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies which made it nearly impossible for them to counsel one another. Had I applied the ADDIE model and analysed the students prior to beginning the activity, I would have known the students' baseline knowledge. I also could have applied the ADDIE model and asked the instructor prior to the activity about the baseline knowledge.
    Once learning about the baseline knowledge through the first group of students, i quickly applied the ADDIE model, although I didn't realize it at the time, and created a way to provide enough information to the students to allow them to practice patient counselling all within the alotted time. The evaluation part of the ADDIE model was missing, but I did try and quiz them as a review after our discussion of osteoporosis. Looking back at this situation, had I applied the ADDIE model from the beginning it would have definitely better prepared me for this teaching activity and I would have had a plan prior to arriving to the session instead of developing one during the activity.

  23. You bring up some interesting points, Brittany. I had a very similar experience as a teaching assistant in pharmacy school. Often when you are not the primary course instructor, you miss out on aspects of ADDIE like designing and development as you discussed. This is understandable when students have less experience and you want to ensure consistency across groups of student, however, if the purpose of student teachers is to prepare them for future practice as educators, it is important to ensure that they are exposed to these aspects. In terms of evaluation, we had formal evaluations at the middle and end of each semester with the primary course instructor. We did little self-evaluation which would have been beneficial. As Brittany stating, receiving feedback from the students would have been very beneficial. Although students fill out evaluations at the end of the semester, it would be prudent to have them provide feedback throughout the course so that you can assess and make changes to improve your teahcing and their learning.

  24. It is interesting to think about how this model relates back to the ADDIE model, especially considering that a lot of our instruction in pharmacy school was based on meeting a defined set of objectives for each course (similar to the Backward Design Model). One key feature that seems to distinguish the two approaches is that the ADDIE process appears to be cyclical with more interplay between each component while the Backward Design Model takes a more linear approach to instructional design. This linear approach could potentially hault creativity within the implemenation phase, which can be redesigned based on evaluations in the ADDIE process. The Backward Design Model has its benefits, however, in that you can hold all students to the same set of objective standards and potentially improve upon to ability to assess student learning.

  25. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Cycle is very similar to the ADDIE model in that it is a process for continual education but for the self. As in the ADDIE model, there are five stages of the CPD cycle: Reflect, Plan, Act, and Evaluate that occur one after another but all point back and forth to Record & Review. During Reflect, there is self-appraisal of where the practitioner wants to be (not where someone else says they should be) and what their learning needs are (as in audience Analysis of the ADDIE model). This stage may be easier or more difficult to assess
    compared to an audience analysis (where one may need to actually ask the audience and try to meet the needs of multiple) depending on how often the individual is self-reflecting. Next, base on perceived needs, a Plan for personal development including individualized learning objectives and activities required to meet them is decided (similar to Design and Develop of the ADDIE model but combined into one). Like the ADDIE model, the CPD cycle puts Plan into
    Action or Implementation. Nearly lastly, Evaluation occurs after every stage in the CPD cycle to ensure each stage was completed to satisfaction as in the ADDIE model. As the CPD cycle is a proactive, individual-driven, it is highly dependent on continuously Recording and Reviewing what has been done in dedication to a life of learning (and maintaining licensure!). This is not implicitly stated in the ADDIE model, however, it can be presumed that an instructor would document their teaching activities in a teaching portfolio or in a curriculum vitae in order to provide evidence of their dedication to lifelong learning also. Just as there seems to be a shift in how to teach, there is also a shift in how to teach yourself with the use of the ADDIE and CPD model/cycle. Both models definitely make the needs of the end-user (the audience or individual) cornerstone to the whole learning experience, whereas this may not have been the case many moons ago.

  26. I think a good analogy to instructional system design, in particular the ADDIE system, is the work someone has to do to start their own business. First the entrepreneur needs to analyze the existing market: is there a need for the business they want to start, what is the income demographics, what are the buying patterns of people, what is the competition, etc. Then the entrepreneur needs to come up with a business plan (ie: development). Then the person actually has to start the work of opening the business like securing financing, building or renting a space, hiring employees (ie: development). Then the entrepreneur actually opens the business and begins serving customers (ie: implementation). And lastly the person should solicit feedback on how customers like the business, what things they would like to see change, what things they would like to see added, etc. (ie: evaluation).

  27. Continuing Professional Development Cycle is very similar to the ADDIE model except that the instruction is a process of life-long learning for the self. As in the ADDIE model, there are five stages of the CPD cycle: Reflect, Plan, Act, and Evaluate that occur one after another but all point back and forth to Record & Review. During Reflect, there is self-appraisal of where the practitioner wants to be (not where someone else says they should be) and what their learning needs are (as in audience Analysis of the ADDIE model). This stage may be easier or more difficult to assess compared to an audience analysis (where one may need to actually ask the audience and try to meet the needs of multiple) depending on how often the individual is self-reflecting. Next, base on perceived needs, a Plan for personal development including individualized learning objectives and activities required to meet them is decided (similar to Design and Develop of the ADDIE model but combined into one). Like the ADDIE model, the CPD cycle puts Plan into Action or Implementation. Nearly lastly, Evaluation occurs after every stage in the CPD cycle to ensure each stage was completed to satisfaction as in the ADDIE model. As the CPD cycle is a proactive, individual-driven, it is highly dependent on continuously Recording and Reviewing what has been done in dedication to a life of learning (and maintaining licensure!). This is not implicitly stated in the ADDIE model, however, it can be presumed that an instructor would document their teaching activities in a teaching portfolio or in a curriculum vitae in order to provide evidence of their dedication to lifelong learning also. Just as there appears to be a shift in how to teach, there is also a shift in how to teach yourself with the use of the ADDIE and CPD models. Both models definitely make the needs of the end-user (the audience or individual) cornerstone to the whole learning experience, whereas this may not have been the case many moons ago.

  28. From reading everyone's posts, there seems to be a running trend here. Either we forget to analyze our audience beforehand or we leave out the evaluation portion at the end to learn from our mistakes. I was asked to teach a group of nurses within a "Critical Care Fellowship" a few years ago. The coordinator assumed that these were nurses who were training in the critical care units already. It turned out that they were actually step-down unit nurses who had an interest in critical care but hadn't been in an ICU yet. My portion concerned the use of titrateable medications and their mechanism of action. During the lecture one of the nurses said that they weren't interested in how the drugs worked, just how to titrate them. This lack of a baseline knowledge then made by evaluation portion of the lecture (answering questions regarding real patient cases) almost impossible to do. I now realize how important the "A" is in ADDIE and it really is the starting point for any teaching activity.

  29. During my undergraduate years I tutored local high school seniors in a variety of science related topics. One semester, I taught biology and was asked to teach students about mitosis and meiosis. During the session, I feel that I did not achieve the goals I had in mind when I first created a lesson plan. I made the critical error of assuming the students understood the parts of the cell fairly well. Had I taken the time to understand where my audience was coming from and understood their baseline knowledge of cellular function then I might have had a greater impact since I would have been able to build upon what they already knew. Assessing the gap between what is known and what is needed to be learned was necessary and would have guided the design phase. As part of the lesson plan I developed, I integrated a significant amount of interactivity in a small group. I found pictures of mitotic stages and asked students to arrange them in the correct order and explain what was going on in each section. Sadly, this did not go as expected either. Asking students to go in front of others and explain something they don’t fully understand themselves is almost impossible. Had I developed a lesson plan that drew upon existing knowledge or reviewed earlier concepts while explaining new ones I would have done better. I could have also reviewed the interactive components and tested them ahead of time to ensure student involvement. In essence not performing a proper analysis seemed to cause the entire lesson plan to breakdown.

  30. Some important information in order to begin the analysis portion would be the curriculum design and goals of the curriculum committee. I would start by asking how does my instructional event fit into the larger mission of teaching. For instance, I gave a didactic lecture in the Fall semester to 2nd year pharmacy students. I was forunate to have gone to University of Maryland SOP therefore I knew how the PP&T curriculum was structured and the how each fast-paced lecture fit into each disease state module. As an outsider, I would imagine this step, analysis, to be crucial to the success of the learning event. Other information would be to know the time allotted, order of previous and future lessons, testing methods, prior learning acitivites that have worked and those perceived as not effective, prior student's ability to learn the material (if class is taught every year), and feedback from previous classes. Relevant sources would be course evaluations from prior student classes (year), curriculum committee, course master, and other educators in relevant areas in the course.

  31. As most people have mentioned, I think it's definitely essential to get an understanding of your audience's baseline knowledge before designing any type of instructional material. On top of that, it is probably equally important to attempt to get an understanding of the different learning styles within the audience - especially if you are teaching a topic that can be approached from several different angles. For example, in our organic chemistry class in college the professors included several different activities to try to appeal to different learning styles, including large-group lectures, practice problems, class demonstrations/experiments, and even the use of plastic "atom models."

  32. I agree with many of the thoughts already posted on this
    topic. As Monique mentioned, key pieces
    of information required prior to designing instructional materials include
    curriculum goals, logistics of the class (time, space, technology available),
    and history of learning experiences.
    Within a School of Pharmacy, it is easier to obtain information on
    student’s past learning experiences within the pharmacy curriculum as many of
    the syllabi would be available for you to review (either directly or from
    asking colleagues). Maureen and Brittany
    also commented on pretests or quizzes given out at the beginning of a class to
    assess student’s baseline knowledge. I
    think this is an important aspect of analyzing what instruction is needed. Even though students may have all been exposed
    to the same courses, the knowledge and application of that knowledge will be
    different for each student. Providing an
    ungraded quiz or test at the beginning of a course will supplement the
    background research an instructor has already completed. Ideally, the outcomes of the quiz will show if
    a review of specific content is required.
    For example, in my physiology class in pharmacy school, our professor
    gave us a quiz to analyze our baseline knowledge. Based on the results, he adjusted future
    lectures. Ultimately, analysis prior to
    an instructional event will require gathering information from multiple sources
    including students, colleagues, course catalogs and syllabi, and relevant

  33. Even looking back to last semester I am able to identify some ABL activities that did not go as smoothly as they could have, primarily due to the fact that the ADDIE model was used in a disjointed fashion. In ABL, the majority of the activities are designed and developed by faculty members and I've noticed that coming into the model at the implementation stage can be difficult. There have been times in ABL when I am unsure about how the learning objectives relate to the students' current coursework because I did not play an active role in the designing the activity. I've also noticed several instances in which the analysis component of the ADDIE model was either not performed (by myself or the faculty member) or not communicated to me by the faculty member beforehand. Afterwards, the lab activities almost feel incomplete because I leave the picture before the evaluation stage of the model, and never get a true understanding of how successful the activity was for the students.

  34. While on rotation as a student I had numerous opportunities to provide in-services or informal education sessions to other health professionals. On one particular rotation I was asked to review the quality of medication histories taken by nursing staff. After interviewing nurses and reviewing countless medication histories (analysis) I determined that their abilities were quite good considering that they had never received formal education or training on the subject. Although I was not familiar with the ADDIE model I applied the basic principles of scientific research (observe, hypothesize, experiment, analyze results) to develop an educational session with the goal of improving the nurses' ability to obtain an accurate medication history. Everyone who attended the in-service seemed to understand all of the information I presented, yet weeks later I continued to find frequent discrepancies in patients' medication histories. At the time the experience was quite frustrating. I now realize that I left out a key component of the ADDIE model, evaluation. At no point did I provide summative or formative evaluation. The use of formative assessment would have allowed me to tailor the experience to better suit the learning needs of the nurses in real-time, while summative assessment would have me to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of the activity.

  35. I agree with your thoughts on ABL activities and not taking part in the development of the activities. The guides have been written for us and are helpful to keep the activity running. As someone who came from another School of Pharmacy, I am unfamiliar with the curriculum at UMD. Recently, when I facilitated a SOAP note activity in ABL, I taught in mid-activity. The first part of the SOAP note had been discussed the prior week. While we were provided information regarding the case, the prior week’s instructor guide, and the answer key, it felt that there was no conclusion to the session. We did go through the various information included in the A&P and discuss the answers to the case. However, at the end of the session, it was unclear what the students learned during the short time. The ADDIE model would have been helpful for my role as a facilitator, especially the ADD portion of the model - I would have a better understanding of the student’s background education on SOAP notes and involvement in developing the patient case and instructor’s guide. It may be difficult and impractical to provide all residents helping with ABL the information related to the development and design of the activities, and not feasible for students to evaluate each resident for each activity; however, that information would be beneficial to the residents coming in to teach.

  36. I agree with you entirely. I think that teaching assistants are often not viewed as "future educators" and are not required to help with planning of material or curriculum. I would have really enjoyed an opportunity in undergrad to look at the course structure with the professor, even if I was not actually planning it.

  37. I agree with my classmates that it is important to analyze learners' baseline knowledge and skills before designing (and delivering) an instructional program. I would like to add that I think it is equally important to assess learners' attitudes about a subject. For example, I am working with a team to design a curriculum to train employees of long-term care facilities in MD to identify and address palliative needs of long-term care patients. If workers in long-term care don't think palliative care is important in their field or that they no right to address palliative needs, then we won't be able to engage them or teach them anything, at least until we address these attitudes. One of the questions we used to assess attitudes was to simply ask what each healthcare worker's current role in addressing a resident's palliative needs is, and what they think their role should be. On surveys, we ask how important they think it is for them to have a specific skill or knowledge base.
    Part of our analysis for this project included reviewing literature, reviewing similar curricular programs, conducting focus groups at facilities that included workers in all disciplines, and sending out a knowledge, skills, and attitudes survey. All of these components allowed us to compare what we think they should know and be able to do with what they currently know and do.
    Several of my classmates mentioned considering available technology and textbooks, which I agree is essential. Another key piece of information to collect is how the learners can and will receive the learning material. In our analysis, we found that many people we want to reach with our curriculum do not feel comfortable doing online coursework or using a computer, even though online access is available to them at work. By completing our analysis we were able to identify these problems and come up with an alternative for these learners. We will have to keep this alternative medium in mind as we finish designing our course. (They will be able to use a disc-version of the course and their supervisor can administer paper quizzes for them.)

  38. The Morrison, Ross and Kemp model of instructional design (also
    known as the Kemp model) emphasizes continuous planning, implementation and
    evaluation throughout the design process. It differs from other models, like
    ADDIE, in that the model is systemic and nonlinear. Within the model there are
    nine key elements to instructional design; all of which are independent and do
    not need to be completed in a step wise fashion to ensure effective
    instruction. The model encourages formative evaluation and revision at each
    stage of the design process. The model is particularly appealing to those who
    have little to no prior experience in instructional design because a designer
    can examine the entire scope of a project in a top-down fashion, or focus on
    one particular component of the project at a time.

  39. Perhaps this is an abstract approach, but in the process of thinking about this question, I came up with a unique analogy. I would best compare an instructional systems to the process of cooking or baking. First we must consider who we are preparing the meal for and consider any limiting factors (age group, food allergies, likes/dislikes). Certainly, the type of meal we prepare will reflect the "goals" of the recipient as well as the chef (nutritious meal, recovery meal after sporting event, dessert, etc). Then we should design a recipe (learning plan) assess what materials (learning tools) we will need to gather in order to prepare the meal. Most importantly, we should evaluate how the person receives our meal (instructional method used) in order to adjust the recipe in the future.

  40. I just experienced this today, even after learning about the ADDIE model. The difference is that now I had the knowledge to recognize what was happening. Last semester I assisted with a PP&T case, so I felt like I knew what I was getting into with this one. I read the case and prepared (or so I thought), but I did not realize until 20 minutes into the session that this was the first case ever for first year pharmacy students. I had to quickly re-evaluate my approach, and with some guidance and advice from my preceptor, provide more direction to the students that normal. In fact, we decided to break with tradition and review each case with the class as a whole to ensure they were understanding the process. I was thankful to be paired with such an astute educator who had probably used the ADDIE framework and was prepared to correct course as needed. Of course, the version of ADDIE that I am applying here is the circular format with evaluation at the center and connected to ADDI, where one can move fluidly throughout. After today, I think this is definitely more realistic and applicable to real life! I agree with my classmates that if I was more involved in the activity design, I would have applied ADDIE fully and been more prepared to meet the needs of the students today from the start of class. Specifically, I could have allotted a certain amount of time for each case and proactively kept the students at a good pace to finish the activity in the allotted classroom time.

  41. I also discovered Kemp’s instructional design model during my research. This model is a framework that incorporates 9 components of instructional design. The model was developed as a continuous cycle, involving planning, design, development, and assessment. The intent was to create a non-linear approach that encompassed a wide, “oval-shaped” design. See the visual depiction of the design model at: http://elearningcurve.edublogs.org/2009/06/10/discovering-instructional-design-11-the-kemp-model/. The 9 components of instructional design are as follows:

    1. Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.

    2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.

    3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.

    4. State instructional objectives for the learner.

    5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.

    6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.

    7. Plan the instructional message and delivery.

    8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.

    9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

    The elements are to be considered independent of each other, as they are part of the continuous cycle of instructional design. Like the ADDIE model, evaluation is emphasized throughout the process. Unlike the ADDIE model, this model places emphasis on the learner and allows for flexibility, re-evaluation, and revisiting the different areas of design throughout the process. The ADDIE model is also very linear and structured - it takes on a stepwise approach, rather than an interconnected, non-linear design. I believe this is an enhancement on the ADDIE model, mainly because it mirrors my general approach to project management. I prefer a non-linear approach, working on different challenges along the way, and reassessing my overall design based upon the individual components. It is rare that I approach a project and systematically complete it in a linear fashion. I find that this type of "disorganized structure" works best for me, and agree with Amanda's assessment of this being ideal for a beginner in instructional design.

  42. Actually I find there are many similar principles between ASSURE and ADDIE, but it appears that ASSURE is directly designed for practical use for teaching small group and didactic lectures. Whereas the principles of ADDIE can be applied to many settings in academia but also project design, designing new clinical services, and others. I personally like the ASSURE model because it is more specific and provides all the necessary steps whereas ADDIE is more vague in its process.

  43. Kashelle, I think that is a perfect example of actually the need to evaluate at all steps of ADDIE, which could even be during the implementation phase. (http://edweb.sdsu.edu/Courses/EDTEC700/ETP/images/addie.jpg)
    That diagram shows how evaluation should be incorporated into each step.

    Your experience sounds like a great one because you had to quickly evaluate and redesign all within the same time period.